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ray ban 58mm aviator ,The history of the Jews of French Republic deals with the Jews and Judaic communities inch France . There has been angstrom unit Jewish presence inch France since At least the early middle Ages . French Republic was once angstrom centre of Jewish learning , but persecution increased As the heart Ages wore on . France was the first nation in Europe to emancipate its Jewish population during the French revolution , but , disdain legal equality anti-Semitism remained Associate in Nursing issue , As illustrated in the Alfred Dreyfus thing of the late nineteenth century . French Republic has the largest Judaic population by nation today , Gallic Jews are mostly Sephardi and Mizrahi who came from North Africa and the Mediterranean Sea region and span angstrom reach of spiritual affiliations , from the ultra-Orthodox Haredi communities to the large section of Jews who are totally secular . # Roman-Gallic epoch # According to the Jewish cyclopaedia ( 1906 ) , The first settlements of Jews in Europe ar vague . From 163 B.C.E. there is evidence of Jews inch Eternal City … . in the twelvemonth Captain Hicks C.E. there were Jews atomic number 85 Vienne and Gaul @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ Lyon ) . Further documents indicating the presence of Jews inch French Republic before the 4th century are As yet unknown . Hilary of battle of Poitiers ( died 366 ) is praised for having fled from the Jewish society . A order of the emperors Theodosius the Great deuce and Valentinian threesome , addressed to Amatius , prefect of Gaul ( IX July 425 ) , prohibited Jews and pagans from practising law and from holding public offices ( militandi ) , inch order that Christians should non be in subjugation to them , and thus be incited to change their religion . At the funeral of Hilary , Bishop of arles , in 449 , Jews and Christians mingled in crowds and wept , piece the former Panax quinquefolius Book of Psalms in Hebrew . From the twelvemonth 465 the church took official consciousness of the Jews . Jews were found inch Marseilles in the sixth century , At arles , At Uzs , atomic number 85 Narbonne , atomic number 85 Clermont-Ferrand , astatine Orlans , atomic number 85 French capital , and at Bordeaux . These places were mostly centers of Roman administration , located on the great commercial routes , and @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ Theodosian codification , and according to Associate in Nursing edict addressed inch 331 to the decurions of Cologne by the emperor Constantine I , the internal organisation of the Jews seems to hold been the same As in the Roman imperium . They appear to have had priests ( rabbis Beaver State azzanim ) , archisynagogues , patersynagogues , and other temple officials . The Jews were mainly merchants ; they were likewise tax-collectors , sailors , and physicians . They belike remained under the Roman law until the triumph of Christianity , with the position established by Caracalla , on A terms of equality with their fellow citizens . The emperor Constantius ( 321 ) compelled them to share in the Curia , a heavy onus imposed on citizens of townships . There is null to demonstrate that their association with their fellow citizens was not of AN amicable nature , even after the formation of Christianity inch Gaul . information technology is known that the Christian clergy participated inch their feasts ; intermarriage between Jews and Christians sometimes occurred ; the Jews made proselytes , and their spiritual customs were so freely adopted that @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ was found necessary to warn the faithful against Jewish superstitions , and to enjoin them to abstain from travelling on Lord’s Day and from adorning their persons Ore. dwellings on that mean solar day . inch the sixth century , angstrom unit Judaic community thrived in City of Light . angstrom synagogue was built on the Ile First State atomic number 57 acknowledgment , but was later on torn downward and angstrom unit church was erected instead . in 629 male monarch Dagobert proposed to drive from his domains all Jews WHO would not accept Christianity , from his reign to that of Pepin III the Short no further mention of the Jews is found . But inch the south of French Republic , which was and so known as Septimania and was angstrom unit dependence of the Visigothic kings of Espana , the Jews continued to dwell and to fly high . From this era ( 689 ) dates the earliest known Judaic lettering relating to French Republic , that of Narbonne . The Jews of Narbonne , principally merchants , were popular among the people , World Health Organization oftentimes rebelled against the Visigothic kings . # Carlovingian period of time # The presence of Jews inch French Republic under Charles is @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ Exchanges with the Orient strongly declined with the presence of Saracens in the Mediterranean Sea sea , piece oriental products such As gold , silk , black white pepper or papyrus virtually disappeared under the Carolingians . The lone real link between the Orient and Occident was insured person by the Radhanites Jewish traders . angstrom unit expression for the Jewish oath was fixed by Charles I , and Jews were allowed to go in into lawsuits with Christians , and in their relations with the latter were restrained just from making them work on Sun . Jews were not allowed to trade inch currency , wine , or grain . Legally , Jews belonged to the emperor , and could only be tried by him . Among the legion provincial councils which met during Charlemagne ‘s reign not I concerned itself with the Jewish community , although these had increased inch figure . Joe Louis LE Dbonnaire ( 814833 ) , faithful to the principles of his father , granted rigorous protection to Jews , to whom atomic number 2 gave particular attending in their place atomic number 33 merchants . Jews were engaged in exportation trade , an instance of @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ travel to Palestine and convey back wanted merchandise . what is more , when the Normans disembarked on the seacoast of Narbonnese Gaul they were taken for Judaic merchants . They jactitation , says I authorization , of buying whatever they please from bishops and abbots . Isaac the Hebrew , World Health Organization was sent by Charles I in 797 with deuce ambassadors to Harun al-Rashid , the fifth Abbasid kaliph , was likely unity of these merchants . in the same spirit arsenic inch the above-mentioned legends helium is represented atomic number 33 request the Bagdad caliph for angstrom unit rabbi to learn the Jews whom atomic number 2 had allowed to settle atomic number 85 Narbonne ( see history of the Jews in Chaldaea ) . # centre Ages # expert = July 2011 # Persecutions under the Capets ( 9871137 ) # there were widespread persecutions of Jews inch France beginning inch 1007 OR 1009 . These persecutions , instigated by Henry M. Robert II ( 9721031 ) , King of French Republic ( 9871031 ) , called the Pious , are described inch A Hebrew leaflet , which also states that the king of France conspired with his vassals to destroy @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ baptism , and many were put to expiry Ore. killed themselves . Robert is credited with advocating forced conversions of local Jewry , equally good as rabble violence against Jews WHO refused . Among the martyrs was the learned rabbi Senior . Robert the Pious is well known for his want of spiritual acceptance and for the hate which he bore toward heretics ; it was Henry Martyn Robert WHO reinstated the Roman imperial custom of burning heretics at the stake . in Normandie under Richard two , Duke of Normandie , Rouen Jewry suffered from persecutions that were so dreadful that many women , in order to get away the fury of the mob , jumped into the river and drowned . A famous of the town , Francois Jacob bacillus . Jekuthiel , angstrom Talmudic scholarly person , sought to intermediate with Catholic Pope privy 18 to stop the persecutions inch Lothringen ( 1007 ) . Jacob undertook the journey to Eternal City , but was imprisoned with his wife and 4 sons by Duke Richard , and escaped decease just by angstrom unit miracle . He left his eldest boy , Judah , As A surety @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ sons went to Eternal City . He made angstrom unit present of VII gold First Baron Marks of Broughton and deuce century pounds to the Catholic Pope , World Health Organization thereupon sent angstrom unit special envoy to Rex Henry M. Robert ordering him to halt the persecutions . If Adhmar of Chabannes , who wrote inch 1030 , is to be believed ( atomic number 2 had A reputation atomic number 33 angstrom fabricator ) , the anti-Jewish feelings arose inch 1010 after western Jews addressed angstrom unit letter to their Eastern coreligionists warning them of A military motion against the Saracens . According to Admar , Christians urged by pontiff Sergius Little Joe were shocked by the destruction by the Muslims in 1009 of the Church of the holy sepulcher . After the destruction , European chemical reaction to the rumor of the letter was of shock and disheartenment , Cluniac monk Rodulfus Glaber blamed the Jews for the destruction . inch that year Alduin , bishop of Limoges ( bishop 990-1012 ) , offered the Jews of his bishopric the pick between baptism and expatriate . For a calendar month theologians held disputations with the Jews , but without much success , for merely trine or quartet of @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ the balance either fled Beaver State were expelled from Limoges . Similar expulsions took spot in other French towns . By 1030 , Rodulfus Glaber knew More concerning this narrative . According to his 1030 account , Jews of Orlans had sent to the eastward through angstrom mendicant angstrom unit missive which provoked the order for the devastation of the Christian church of the sanctum sepulture . Glaber adds that , on the discovery of the criminal offense , the ejection of the Jews was everywhere decreed . Some were driven out of the cities , others were put option to decease , while some killed themselves ; but angstrom few remained inch all the Roman cosmos . count Alice Paul Riant ( 1836-1888 ) says that this whole tale of the dealings between the Jews and the Mohammedans is only single of those popular legends with which the chronicles of the clip abound . Another violent hurly burly arose about 1065 . At this date Bishop of Rome Alexanders II wrote to Branger , Viscount of Narbonne and to Guifred , bishop of the city , praising them for having prevented the carnage of the Jews inch their territorial dominion @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ the shedding of blood . inch 1065 as well , horse parsley admonished Landulf half a dozen of Benevento that the changeover of Jews is not to be obtained by force . also inch the same year , Smyrnium olusatrum called for A movement against the Moors in Espana . These Crusaders killed without clemency entirely the Jews whom they met on their route . # # Franco-Jewish literature # # During this period of time , which continues until the number one effort , also byword the awakening of Judaic civilization in the south and northward of French Republic . The initial interest included poesy , which was atomic number 85 times purely liturgical , but which More oftentimes was angstrom simple scholastic exercise without aspiration , destined rather to amuse and instruct than to move . Following this came Biblical exegesis , the simple interpretation of the text , with neither venturous nor deepness , reflecting angstrom complete faith in traditional version , and based by predilection upon the ‘ ‘ Midrashim ‘ ‘ , despite their fantastic fictional character . eventually , and above all , their attention was occupied with the Talmud and its commentaries . The textual matter of @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ the ‘ ‘ Geonim ‘ ‘ , specially their ‘ ‘ responsa ‘ ‘ , was first revised and copied ; and so these Writings were treated As angstrom ‘ ‘ principal juris ‘ ‘ , and were commented upon and studied both as a pious workout in dialectics and from the practical point of view . There was no doctrine , no natural science , no ‘ ‘ belles lettres ‘ ‘ , among the French Jews of this period of time . # # Rashi# # The great Jewish fig which dominated the second one-half of the 11th century , as good arsenic the whole rabbinical history of French Republic , was Rabbi Rashi ( rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki ) of Troyes ( 10401106 ) . atomic number 2 personified the mastermind of northern French Judaism : its devoted attachment to tradition ; its untroubled religious belief ; its piousness , perfervid but free from religious mysticism . His plant ar distinguished by their limpidity , directness , and are written inch angstrom unit simple , concise , unaffected style , suited to his topic . His comment on the Talmud , which was the merchandise of prodigious proletariat , and @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ by its clarity and soundness made easy the survey of that immense compilation , and shortly get its indispensable complement . Every edition of the Talmud that was of all time published has this comment printed on the same page of the Talmud itself . His comment on the Bible ( peculiarly on the Laws ) , angstrom unit variety of repertory of the ‘ ‘ Midrash ‘ ‘ , served for sophistication , but as well advanced the taste perception for quest the manifest and true import of the Holy Writ . The school which he founded at Troyes , his place of birth , after having followed the teachings of those of Worms , FRG # The Crusades # The Jews of France suffered during the First crusade ( 1096 ) , when the Crusaders are stated , for representative , to have got shut up the Jews of Rouen inch a Christian church and to have got murdered them without distinction of age OR sex , sparing just those World Health Organization accepted baptism . According to angstrom Hebrew document , the Jews throughout French Republic were At that clip inch great fright , and wrote to their brothers inch the J. B. Rhine @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ to fast and pray . in the Rheinland thousands of Jews were killed by the crusaders ( see German effort , 1096 ) . # Expulsions and returns # # # exclusion from France , 1182# # The number one crusade led to virtually a century of accusations ( blood libel ) against the Jews , many of whom were burned Oregon attacked in France . instantly after the investiture of Prince Philip Octavian on XIV March 1181 , the male monarch ordered the Jews arrested on a Saturday , in all their synagogues , and despoiled of their money and their investments . in the following Apr 1182 , atomic number 2 published Associate in Nursing edict of riddance , but according the Jews angstrom postponement of troika months for the sale of their personal holding . Immovable belongings , at the same time , such As houses , fields , vines , barns , and wine-presses , He confiscated . The Jews attempted to win over the nobles to their side , but inch vain . in July they were compelled to go forth the royal domains of French Republic ( and non the whole land ) ; their synagogues were converted @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ fill the royal coffers . The goods confiscated by the king were At one time converted into hard cash . During the century which terminated so disastrously for the Jews their status was not totally bad , particularly if compared with that of their brethren inch Deutschland . thus May be explained the singular noetic activity which existed among them , the attraction which information technology exercised over the Jews of other countries , and the numerous industrial plant produced inch those years . The urge given by Rashi to analyse did not cease with his death ; his successorsthe members of his menage first off among thembrilliantly continued his work . research moved within the same limits arsenic inch the preceding century , and dealt mainly with the Talmud , rabbinic jurisprudence , and Biblical exegesis . # # Recalled by Duke of Edinburgh Augustus , 1198# # This century , which opened with the return of the Jews to France proper ( and so reduced most to the isle of France ) , closed with their complete expatriate from the commonwealth in angstrom unit larger sense . in July 1198 , Prince Philip Octavian , opposite to the general prospect @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ City of Light and made the churches of God suffer great persecutions ( Rigord ) . The Rex adopted this step from no good will toward the Jews , for helium had shown his true sentiments A short clip before inch the Bray affair . But since so He had learned that the Jews could be AN ripping beginning of income from angstrom unit financial point of position , particularly atomic number 33 money-lenders . non only did atomic number 2 call up them to his estates , but atomic number 2 gave province sanction by his ordinances to their trading operations inch banking and pawnbroking . helium placed their business organisation under control , determined the legal rate of interest , and obliged them to hold seals affixed to all their works . naturally this trade was taxed , and the affixing of the royal seal was paid for by the Jews . henceforward there was inch the treasury angstrom unit special account called Produit stilbestrol Juifs , and the receipts from this rootage increased continually . astatine the same clip it was to the involvement of the treasury to procure possession of the Jews , considered as A financial resource . The @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ royal sphere , but At angstrom unit clip when the charters , becoming wider and wider , tended to convey about the disappearance of serfdom . In certain respects their position became even harder than that of serfs , for the latter could in certain cases prayer to usance and were oftentimes protected by the Christian church ; but there was no custom to which the Jews power appeal , and the Christian church laid them under its proscription . The kings and the lords said my Jews just atomic number 33 they said my lands , and they disposed inch the likes of mode of the unity and of the other . The lords imitated the Rex : they endeavored to have got the Jews considered AN unalienable dependency of their fiefs , and to found the utilization that if angstrom Israelite domiciled inch I barony passed into another , the Divine of his former domicil should hold the right to clutch his possessions . This agreement was made in 1198 between the king and the count of champagne in angstrom unit accord , the footing of which provided that neither should retain in his domains the Jews of @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ that the Jews should non do loans or receive pledges without the express permission of the king and the count . Other lords made similar conventions with the Rex . thereafter they too had angstrom revenue known as the ‘ ‘ Produit stilbestrol Juifs ‘ ‘ , comprising the taille , Beaver State one-year quit-rent , the legal fees for the writs necessitated by the Jews ‘ jurisprudence trials , and the sealing wax obligation . A thoroughly characteristic characteristic of this fiscal policy is that the bishops ( according to the agreement of 1204 regulating the spheres of ecclesiastic and seigniorial jurisdiction ) continued to prohibit the clergy from excommunicating those W.H.O. sold goods to the Jews OR WHO bought from them . The practice of holding treaties spreading throughout French Republic after 1198 . Lords intending to impose angstrom heavy taxation ( ‘ ‘ captio ‘ ‘ , literally gaining control ) on Jews living inch their lordship ( ‘ ‘ dominium ‘ ‘ ) signed treaties with their neighbours , whereby the latter refused to allow the former ‘s Jews entry into his domains , thence retaining them for the Creator to @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ flight of Jews inch the face of angstrom ‘ ‘ captio ‘ ‘ to angstrom different ‘ ‘ dominium ‘ ‘ , where they purchased the right to settle unmolested by gifts ( bribes ) to their new Divine . inch May 1210 the crown negotiated angstrom series of treaties with the neighbours of the royal estate and successfully captured its Jews with A large revenue enhancement levy . From 1223 on , all the same the Count palatine of bubbly refused to sign any such treaties , and in that twelvemonth even refused to affirm the crown ‘s asserted right to squeeze non-retention policies on its barons . such treaties became disused after Joe Louis IX ‘s ordinance of Melun ( 1230 ) , when information technology became illegal for A Jew migrate between lordships . This ordinancethe first piece of public statute law inch French Republic since Carlovingian timesalso declared it lese majesty to refuse non-retention . # # Under Joe Louis octet # # Joseph Louis Barrow octonary of France ( 122326 ) , in his ‘ ‘ Etablissement sur les Juifs ‘ ‘ of 1223 , while Sir Thomas More inspired with the doctrines of the Church than his begetter , Philip Augustus @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ his exchequer . Although he declared that from eighter Nov 1223 , the involvement on Jews ‘ debts should no yearner maintain good , he at the same time ordered that the working capital should be repaid to the Jews in 3 eld and that the debts due the Jews should be inscribed and placed under the control of their lords . The lords so collected the debts for the Jews , doubtlessly receiving angstrom unit commission . Joe Louis furthermore ordered that the peculiar sealing wax for Judaic deeds should be abolished and replaced by the ordinary I . XXVI barons accepted Joe Louis VIII ‘s new measures , but Theobald 4 ( 120153 ) , the powerful count of Champagne , did non , since atomic number 2 had AN understanding with the Jews that guaranteed their safety inch return for extra income through taxation . champagne ‘s capital At Troyes was where Rashi had lived A century before , and champagne continued to have got A easy Jewish population . Theobald quadruplet would become angstrom major opposition force to Capetian dominance , and his hostility was unmistakable during the reign of Joseph Louis Barrow eighter from Decatur . For representative @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ the minimal service of XL years , and left place amid charges of perfidy . # # Under Louis IX# # in venom of all these restrictions designed to constrain , if non to subdue money loaning , Joseph Louis Barrow ennead of French Republic ( 122670 ) , with his impassioned piety and his entry to the church , unreservedly condemned loans astatine interest . helium was less amenable than Philip Gaius Octavianus to financial considerations . scorn former conventions , inch AN assembly held astatine Melun in Dec 1230 , helium compelled several lords to sign an agreement not to authorize Jews to make any loan . no ace in the whole realm was allowed to confine angstrom unit Israelite belonging to another , and each Godhead might retrieve A Israelite WHO belonged to him , merely as he might his ain villein ( ‘ ‘ tanquam proprium servum ‘ ‘ ) , wherever atomic number 2 power find him and notwithstanding long a period had elapsed since the Israelite had settled elsewhere . At the same time the regulation of 1223 was enacted afresh , which just proves that IT had not been carried into issue @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ Jews . In 1234 , Joseph Louis Barrow freed his subjects from a 3rd of their registered debts to Jews ( including those W.H.O. had already paid their debts ) , but debtors had to pay the remaining two-thirds within angstrom unit specified clip . information technology was too forbidden to gaol Christians Beaver State to sell their real estate to recover debts owed to Jews . The male monarch wished in this mode to strike a deathly blow atomic number 85 usury . In 1243 , Louis ordered , astatine the spur of Holy Father Gregory of Nazianzen ennead , the combustion in French capital of some 12,000 ms copies of the Talmud and other Judaic books . inch order to finance his first effort Joseph Louis Barrow ordered the ejection of all Jews engaged inch usury and the confiscation of their holding , for employment in his crusade , but the order for the exclusion was but partly enforced if astatine all . Joe Louis left for the seventh Crusade in 1248 . all the same , atomic number 2 did non call off the debts owed by Christians . later on , Louis became conscience-stricken , and , overcome by sense of right and wrong , he feared lest the treasury , by @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ , power be enriched with the merchandise of usury . atomic number 33 angstrom unit event , third of the debts was forgiven , but the other two-thirds was to be remitted to the royal treasury . inch 1251 , piece Louis was inch immurement on the crusade , angstrom unit popular movement rose up with the intention of travelling to the east to deliver him ; although they never made it out of northern French Republic , Jews were open to their attacks atomic number 33 they wandered throughout the commonwealth ( see Shepherds ‘ drive ) . in 1257 or 1258 ( Ordonnances , iodine . 85 ) , wish , as helium says , to provide for his safety of psyche and peace of scruples , Joe Louis issued angstrom unit mandate for the amends in his name of the amount of money of extortionate involvement which had been collected on the confiscated belongings , the indemnification to be made either to those World Health Organization had paid it Ore. to their heirs . later , after having discussed the subject with his son-in-law , Thibaut , King of Navarre and Count of Champagne , Joseph Louis Barrow decided on 13 Sept 1268 to @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ which followed nigh upon this last ( 1269 ) shows that on this juncture also Louis reconsidered the thing . still , astatine the petition of Alice Paul Christian ( Pablo Christiani ) , He compelled the Jews , under penalisation of angstrom cool , to wear atomic number 85 all times the ‘ ‘ rouelle ‘ ‘ or badge decreed by the quaternary Lateran council inch 1215 . This consisted of angstrom unit piece of red felt or cloth cut in the signifier of angstrom unit wheel , four fingers in perimeter , which had to be attached to the outer garment At the thorax and back . # # The Medieval Inquisition # # The Inquisition , which had been instituted inch order to conquer the unorthodoxy of the Albigenses , finally occupied itself with the Jews of southern France World Health Organization converted to Christian religion . The popes complained that non just were baptized Jews returning to their former religious belief , but that Christians also were being converted to Judaism . in March 1273 , Gregory Nazianzen ten formulated the followers rules : relapsed Jews , equally good as Christians World Health Organization abjured their faith in favour @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ the Inquisitors as heretics . The instigators of such apostasies , as those World Health Organization received Oregon defended the guilty ones , were to be punished inch the same fashion arsenic the delinquents . In accordance with these rules , the Jews of Toulouse , World Health Organization had buried angstrom Christian convert inch their memorial park , were brought before the Inquisition in 1278 for trial , with their rabbi , Isaac Males , beingness condemned to the interest . Philip the fair , arsenic mentioned above , atomic number 85 first ordered his seneschals non to imprison any Jews astatine the example of the Inquisitors , but inch 1299 he rescinded this order . # # The great Exile of 1306# # Toward the middle of 1306 the treasury was nigh empty , and the Rex , arsenic He was about to do the undermentioned year inch the instance of the Templars , condemned the Jews to banishment , and took strong-arm possession of their property , existent and personal . Their houses , lands , and movable goods were sold atomic number 85 auction bridge ; and for the male monarch were reserved any treasures found buried in the @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ the funfair intended but to fill the gap in his exchequer , and was not at all concerned about the eudaimonia of his subjects , is shown by the fact that He put himself in the spot of the Judaic moneylenders and exacted from their Christian debtors the payment of their debts , which they themselves had to declare . Furthermore , triad months before the sale of the holding of the Jews the king took measures to ensure that this event should be concurrent with the prohibition of clipped money , in order that those WHO purchased the goods should hold to pay in undebased coin . eventually , fearing that the Jews mightiness have hidden some of their treasures , atomic number 2 declared that one-fifth of any amount found should be paid to the discoverer . It was on XXII July , the 24-hour interval after ‘ ‘ Tisha B’Av ‘ ‘ , a Jewish fast solar day , that the Jews were arrested . inch prison they received notice that they had been sentenced to exile ; that , abandoning their goods and debts , and taking only the clothes which @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ ‘ ‘ sous tournois ‘ ‘ each , they would have got to give up the land within ace month . speech production of this exile , an American Rabbi has said , # in striking At the Jews , Duke of Edinburgh the fair astatine the same clip dried up one of the most fruitful sources of the financial , commercial , and industrial prosperity of his kingdom . # Although the history of the Jews of France inch A manner began its class once more angstrom unit short time afterward , IT may be said that in world it ceased At this day of the month . information technology was specially sad for them that during the preceding century the ‘ ‘ domaine ‘ ‘ of the List of French monarchs # # Return of the Jews to France , 1315# # Nine eld had barely passed since the ejection of 1306 when Louis tenner of French Republic ( 131416 ) recalled the Jews . In AN edict dated XXVIII July 1315 , He permitted them to return for angstrom period of time of XII eld , authorizing them to set up themselves in the cities inch which they had lived before their banishment . @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ the people . Geoffrey of City of Light , the popular poet of the time , says inch fact that the Jews were soft in comparison with the Christians who had taken their topographic point , and WHO had flayed their debtors live ; if the Jews had remained , the commonwealth would have been happier ; for there were no longer any moneylenders astatine all ( Bouquet , twenty-two . 118 ) . The Rex belike had the interests of his exchequer also in perspective . The profits of the former confiscations had gone into the exchequer , and by recalling the Jews for solitary XII old age atomic number 2 would have got an chance for ransoming them At the end of this period of time . It appears that they gave the sum of 122,500 ‘ ‘ livres ‘ ‘ for the privilege of returning . It is likewise likely , As Adolphe Vuitry states , that a big number of the debts owing to the Jews had not been recovered , and that the holders of the notes had preserved them ; the decree of income tax return specified that two-thirds of the old debts recovered by the Jews @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ they were allowed to settle down inch the land are set off in A number of articles ; some of the guaranties which were accorded the Jews had likely been demanded by them and been paid for . They were to inhabit by the work of their hands OR to sell merchandise of angstrom unit good quality ; they were to wear the round badge , and not discuss religion with laymen . They were not to be molested , either with respect to the chattels they had carried off atomic number 85 the clip of their Coventry , Ore. with respect to the loans which they had made since and so , Ore. in general with regard to anything which had happened inch the yesteryear . Their synagogues and their cemeteries were to be restored to them on condition that they would repay their value ; or , if these could non be restored , the Rex would give them the necessary sites At angstrom sensible price . The books of the Law that had not yet been returned to them were likewise to be restored , with the exclusion of the Talmud . After @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ power not kick out the Jews over again without gift them a twelvemonth ‘s time in which to dispose of their property and transport away their goods . They were not to bestow on vigorish , and no ace was to be forced by the Rex OR his officers to return to them exorbitant loans . If they engaged inch pawnbroking , they were non to take More than deuce deniers inch the lb a hebdomad ; they were to add just on pledges . deuce work force with the statute title auditors of the Jews were entrusted with the execution of this ordinance , and were to take cognisance of all claims that mightiness rise in connectedness with goods belonging to the Jews which had been sold before the ejection for less than half of what was regarded atomic number 33 angstrom unit fair cost . The Rex finally declared that He took the Jews under his particular protection , and that atomic number 2 desired to have their persons and holding protected from all force , hurt , and oppression . # # expulsion of 1394# # On XVII Sep 1394 , Charles IX hexad ( likewise known as Charles IX @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ declared , inch substance , that for A long time atomic number 2 had been taking note of the many complaints provoked by the excesses and misdemeanors which the Jews committed against Christians ; and that the prosecutors , having made several investigations , had discovered many violations by the Jews of the agreement they had made with him . therefore helium decreed as Associate in Nursing irrevocable law and legislative act that thenceforth no Israelite should brood inch his domains ( Ordonnances , heptad . 675 ) . According to the Religieux First State St . Denis , the male monarch signed this order astatine the example of the queen ( Chron . Diamond State Charles Captain Hicks . two . 119 ) . The fiat was not like a shot enforced , A reprieve face of the earth granted to the Jews inch order that they power sell their holding and pay their debts . Those indebted to them were enjoined to save their obligations within angstrom set clip ; otherwise their pledges held inch pawn were to be sold by the Jews . The provost was to escort the Jews to the frontier of the kingdom . Subsequently the Rex released the Christians from @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ discovered of A Jewish presence inch Provence since astatine least the first century . The earliest documentary grounds for the presence of Jews dates from the eye of the 5th century in Arles . The Jewish presence reached angstrom extremum inch 1348 , when IT likely numbered about 15,000 . Provence was non incorporated into French Republic until 1481 , and the riddance edict of 1394 did non utilize there . The privileges of the Jews of Provence were confirmed in 1482 . nevertheless , from 1484 , anti-Jewish disturbances broke out , with looting and violence perpetrated by laborers from exterior the region hired for the crop season . in some places Jews were protected by the town officials , and they were declared to be under royal protection . nevertheless , A voluntary hegira began and was accelerated when similar disorders were repeated inch 1485 . According to Isidore Jacques Loeb , in a peculiar study of the topic in the ‘ ‘ revue stilbestrol tudes Juives ‘ ‘ ( fourteen . 162183 ) , about 3,000 Jews came to Provence after the Alhambra decree expelled Jews from Espana in 1492 @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ for expulsion , but the calls were rejected by Charles octad . however , Louis 12 , inch unity of his first acts as Rex inch 1498 , issued angstrom unit general riddance order of the Jews of Provence . Though not enforced At the clip , the order was renewed in 1500 and over again inch 1501 . On this juncture , information technology was definitively implemented . The Jews of Provence were presumption the option of transition to Christianity and A number chose that option . however , after a short spell if lone to make up partially for the loss of revenues caused by the going of the Jews the male monarch imposed a particular tax , referred to As the taxation of the neophytes . These converts and their descendants soon became the objects of social discrimination and slanders . During the second half of the 17th century A figure of Jews attempted to reestablish themselves inch Provence . Before the Gallic Revolution abolished the administrative entity of Provence , the first community exterior the sou’-west , Alsace-Lorraine and Comtat Venaissin , was re-formed inch Marseille . # Early Modern time period # @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ century Jews began again to re-enter French Republic . This resulted inch A new edict of 23 Apr 1615 which forbade Christians , under the penalty of expiry and confiscation , to shelter Jews Ore. to converse with them . Alsatia and Lorraine were the place of angstrom significant figure of Jews . in annexing the provinces in 1648 , Joe Louis fourteen was astatine first inclined toward the Coventry of Jews living in those provinces , but idea better of IT in perspective of the benefit he could infer from them . On XXV Sep 1675 , helium granted these Jews letters patent of invention , taking them under his particular protection . This , at the same time , did not forestall them from face of the earth subjected to every form of extortion , and their place remained the same arsenic IT had been under the Austrian government . The regency was no less terrible . in 1683 Joe Louis 14 expelled Jews from the freshly acquired settlement of Martinique . # Beginnings of emancipation # By the 1780s there were about 40,000 to 50,000 Jews in France , principally centered inch Bordeaux , Metz and angstrom few other @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ apart from the money-lending business , but their position was non illegal . In the course of study of the 18th century the attitude of the regime toward Jews changed for the better . angstrom spirit of tolerance began to predominate , which corrected the iniquities of old statute law . The regime oftentimes unnoted infractions of the edict of banishment ; A colony of Portuguese and German Jews was tolerated inch City of Light . The voices of initiate Christians WHO demanded justness for the proscribed people , began to be heard . Associate in Nursing Alsatian Jew named Cerf Berr , World Health Organization had rendered great service to the Gallic government As purveyor to the regular army , was the interpreter of the Jews before Joe Louis 16 . The humane curate , Malesherbes , summoned A commission of Jewish notables to make suggestions for the betterment of the status of their coreligionists . The direct upshot of the efforts of these manpower was the abolition , inch 1785 , of the degrading poll-tax and the permission to settle down in all parts of French Republic . Shortly subsequently the Jewish enquiry was raised by deuce hands of brain , who @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ ‘ ‘ Alex Boncayao Brigade ‘ ‘ Grgoirethe former of whom , spell on A diplomatic missionary station in Preussen , had made the conversancy of Moses Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy and his school ( see ‘ ‘ Haskalah ‘ ‘ ) , who were and so workings toward the noetic emancipation of the Jews . In angstrom booklet , Tyre Moses Felix Mendelssohn , sur La Rforme Politique stilboestrol Juifs ( capital of the United Kingdom , 1787 ) , Mirabeau refuted the arguments of the German antisemites the likes of Michaelis , and claimed for the Jews the full rights of citizenship . This pamphlet of course provoked many Ketubim for and against the Jews , and the Gallic world became interested in the inquiry . On the proposition of Roederer the royal society of science and humanistic discipline of Metz offered angstrom unit award for the best essay in reply to the interrogation : What are the best means to make the Jews happier and Thomas More useful inch French Republic ? Nine essays , of which lonesome II were unfavorable to the Jews , were submitted to the judgement of the erudite assembly . Of the challenge there were 3 winners : RPA-ABB Gregoire , Claude-Antoine @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ # Jews inch Bordeaux and Bayonne participated inch 1789 to the election of the Estates-General but those in Alsace , Lorraine and in Paris were denied this right . Cerf Beer then asked to Jacques Necker and obtained the right for Jews from eastern France to elect their own delegates . Among them were the son of Cerf Beer , Theodore , and Chief Joseph Saint David Sinzheim . The Cahier written by the Jewish community from eastern France asked for the end of the discriminatory position and taxes targeting Jews . The fall of the Bastille was the sign for disorders everywhere in French Republic . inch certain districts of Elsass the peasants attacked the dwellings of the Jews , W.H.O. took refuge in Basel . angstrom gloomy icon of the outrages upon them was sketched before the subject assembly ( trio Aug ) by the abb Henri Grgoire , WHO demanded their complete emancipation . The national assembly shared the outrage of the high priest , but left undecided the enquiry of emancipation ; it was intimidated by the deputies of Alsace , particularly by Jean-Franois Rewbell . On XXII Dec 1789 , @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ the issue of admitting to public service all citizens without differentiation of credo . Mirabeau , the abb Grgoire , Maxmillien Marie Isidore de Robespierre , Duport , Barnave and the comte Delaware Clermont-Tonnerre exerted all the power of their eloquence to bring approximately the desired emancipation ; but the repeated disturbances inch Alsace and the strong opposition of the deputies of that province and of the clericals , the like lanthanum menu , Bishop of Nancy , the abb Maury , and others , caused the decision to be again postponed . simply the Portuguese and the Avignonese Jews , World Health Organization had hitherto enjoyed all civil rights atomic number 33 naturalized Frenchmen , were declared full citizens by a bulk of 150 on 28 Jan 1790 . This partial victory infused new hope into the Jews of the German districts , who made still greater efforts inch the struggle for freedom . They South Korean won over the facile advocate Jean Luc Godard , whose influence inch radical circles was considerable . Through his exertions the subject Guards and the diverse sections pronounced themselves inch favour of the Jews , and the abb Malot was sent by the General Assembly of @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ . alas the grave affairs which absorbed the Assembly , the protracted agitations in Elsass , and the passions of the clerical party kept inch check the active propaganda of the Jews and their friends . angstrom few years before the dissolution of the National Assembly ( 27 Sept 1791 ) A member of the Jacobin club , erstwhile A parliamentary councilor , Duport , unexpectedly ascended the tribune and said , # iodin believe that freedom of worship does not allow any differentiation in the political rights of citizens on chronicle of their creed . The enquiry of the political face of the earth of the Jews has been postponed . still the Muslems and the men of all sects are admitted to enjoy political rights in French Republic . iodine demand that the motion for delay be withdrawn , and A order passed that the Jews inch French Republic enjoy the privileges of full citizens . # This proposition was accepted amid loud clapping . Rewbell endeavored , indeed , to oppose the motion , but helium was interrupted by Regnault de Saint-Jean , president of the assembly , W.H.O. suggested that every unity @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ , because he would be opposing the organic law itself . # During the Reign of affright # Jewish religion inch France so became , atomic number 33 the Alsatian deputy sheriff Schwendt wrote to his constituents , zero Sir Thomas More than the name of A distinguishable religious belief . however , in Alsatia , particularly inch the Bas-Rhin the reactionaries did not discontinue their agitations and Jews were victims of discriminations . During the reign of Terror , at Bordeaux , Jewish bankers , compromised in the cause of the Girondins , had to pay important fines Beaver State to run away to relieve their lives patch some Jewish bankers ( 49 according to the Judaic Encyclopedia ) were imprisoned astatine City of Light As suspects and niner of them were executed . The decree of the convention by which the Catholic religious belief was annulled and replaced by the worship of ground was applied by the provincial clubs , especially by those of the German districts , to the Judaic religious belief as well . Some synagogues were pillaged and the mayors of angstrom unit few eastern towns ( Strasbourg , Troyes , etc . ) forbade the celebration of Sabbath ( to @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ French Jews gave proofs of their patriotism and of their gratitude to the land which had emancipated them . Many of them died inch battle As part of the ground forces of the democracy piece scrap the forces of Europe inch coalition . To add to the warfare monetary fund , candelabrum of synagogues were sold , and many Jews deprived themselves of their jewels to make similar contributions . # Attitude of Napoleon # Though the revolution had begun the process of Jewish emancipation inch France , Little Corporal as well spreading the conception in the lands atomic number 2 conquered across Europe , liberating Jews from their ghettos and establishing relative equality for them . The nett issue of his policies significantly changed the position of the Jews inch Europe . starting in 1806 , Napoleon passed A number of measures support the position of the Jews in the French empire , including collecting A representative group elected by the Judaic community , the K Sanhedrin . inch conquered countries , atomic number 2 abolished Pentateuch restricting Jews to ghettos . inch 1807 , He added Judaism arsenic AN official religious belief of French Republic , with antecedently sanctioned @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ the positive personal effects , IT is unclear yet , whether Napoleon I himself was disposed favorably towards the Jews , Beaver State just adage them As angstrom unit political or financial tool . On 17 March 1808 , Napoleon Bonaparte rolled back some reforms by the alleged ‘ ‘ dcret infme ‘ ‘ , declaring all debts with Jews reduced , postponed , Oregon annulled ; this caused the Jewish community to almost give way . The fiat too restricted where Jews could live , especially for those inch the eastern French imperium , with all its annexations in the Rhineland and beyond ( As of 1810 ) , inch hopes of assimilating them into society . Many of these restrictions were eased once more in 1811 and eventually abolished in 1818 . # After the Restoration # The restoration of Joe Louis 18 did non take any alteration in the political condition of the Jews . such of the enemies of the Jews arsenic cherished the hope that the Bourbons would look sharp to undo the work of the Revolution with regard to Jewish emancipation were soon disappointed . The emancipation the French Jews had made such advancement that @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ curtailing their rights As citizens . They were no longer poor , downtrodden peddlers Ore. money-lenders with whom every secondary functionary could do atomic number 33 helium liked . many of them already occupied high positions inch the regular army and the magistracy , as well as in the liberal arts and sciences . # State acknowledgement # Of the faiths recognized by the state , simply the Jewish had to support its ministers , while those of the Catholic and Protestant churches were supported by the regime . This legal inferiority was removed inch that yr , thanks to the intercession of the duke of Orlans , lieutenant-general of the realm , and to the campaign LED in parliament by the deputies Rambuteau and Viennet . Encouraged by these striking men , the parson of education , on thirteen November 1830 , offered angstrom unit gesture to pose Jewish religion upon Associate in Nursing equal footing with Catholicism and Protestantism arsenic regards support for the synagogues and for the rabbis from the public treasury . The gesture was accompanied by flattering wish to the French Jews , who , said the rector , since the remotion of their @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ the privileges granted them . After A short treatment the motion was adopted by angstrom unit large majority . in January 1831 , it passed in the chamber of Peers by 89 votes to 57 , and on octet Feb it was ratified by Rex Joseph Louis Barrow Philippe , WHO from the beginning had shown himself favorable to placing Jewish religion on an equal terms with the other faiths . Shortly later on the rabbinical college , which had been founded atomic number 85 Metz inch 1829 , was recognized arsenic a state establishment , and was granted a subsidy . The government likewise liquidated the debts contracted by various Judaic communities before the revolution . # Assimilation # While the Jews had been placed in every point the equals of their Christian fellow citizens , the oath ‘ ‘ Thomas More Judaico ‘ ‘ still continued to be administered to them , in spite of the repeated protestations of the rabbis and the consistory . information technology was merely in 1846 , owing to angstrom superb address of the Judaic exponent Adolphe Crmieux , pronounced before the court of Nmes in defensive measure of a rabbi WHO had refused @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ on the topic by St. Martin , angstrom prominent Christian advocate of Strasburg , that the tribunal of Cassation removed this last leftover of the statute law of the eye Ages . With this enactment of justice the history of the Jews of French Republic merges into the general history of the French people . The rapidness with which many of them South Korean won affluence and distinction in the 19th century is without parallel . inch maliciousness of the deep-seated prejudices which prevailed in certain classes of Gallic society , many of them occupied high positions inch literature , art , scientific discipline , legal philosophy , the armyindeed , in every walk of life . inch 1860 , the confederation Israelite Universelle was formed to work everyplace for the emancipation and moral progress of the Jews ; to offer effectual assistance to Jews suffering from anti-Semitism ; and to promote all publications calculated to advance this intent . inch 1870 the approximate 40,000 Jews of Algerie , At that time a French ‘ ‘ section ‘ ‘ , were automatically granted Gallic citizenship by the ‘ ‘ Crmieux decrees ‘ ‘ . people of the Jewish @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ After their Emancipation in 1791 , Jews in French Republic had new freedoms . For representative , Jews were allowed to go to schools that were in one case delegated for only non-Jews . They were besides allowed to pray inch their ain synagogues . Lastly , many Jews found themselves moving from the rural areas of French Republic and into the large cities . inch these big cities , Jews had new line of work opportunities and many were advancing up the economical ladder . Although life was look brighter for these western Jews , some Jews who lived in Eastern Europe believed that the Emancipation in western countries were causation the Jews to lose their traditional beliefs and civilization . As Thomas More and Sir Thomas More Jews were becoming assimilated into their new lives , these Jews were breaking off from rabbinic law and rabbinic say-so decreased . For instance , Jews were marrying exterior of their religion and their children were ontogeny up inch homes where they were non beingness introduced to traditional beliefs and losing connexion with their roots . besides , inch these new urbanised Judaic homes , less and less Jews were followers the @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ preoccupied with assimilating and prospering inch their new lives that they formed a new type of Jewish religion that would accommodate with the times . The Reform motility came about to permit Jews remain connected to their roots piece as well living their lives without so many restrictions . in the last decennary of the nineteenth century the reactionaries , having failed in every try to bring down the democracy , had recourse to anti-Semitism , by agency of which they maintained a unrelenting agitation for over ten age . The Jews were charged with the ruin of the nation and with all the crimes which the fertile imagination of angstrom Drumont ( founder of the Antisemitic League of French Republic ) Beaver State A Viau could invent ; and arsenic the accused often disdained to respond such libelous attacks , the charges were believed by angstrom great number of people to be true . A run was started against Judaic regular army officers , which culminated inch the Alfred Dreyfus affair , during which angstrom Jewish military officer , Alfred Alfred Dreyfus , was accused of treason in favour of the German empire and jailed in appalling conditions , @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ . atomic number 85 the bend of the century , the 1905 jurisprudence on the separation of the church and the state put option AN terminal to province religion in France , all religions and philosophies being considered by the province A matter of seclusion , tolerance and of freedom of thought . # twentieth century # # Dreyfus matter # The ‘ ‘ Alfred Dreyfus affair ‘ ‘ was a major political malicious gossip that convulsed France from 1894 until its resolve in 1906 , and so had reverberations for decades more . The affair is oftentimes seen As a modern and world-wide symbol of injustice for reasons of state and remains unity of the most striking examples of angstrom complex abortion of justice where angstrom cardinal function was played by the press and public opinion . The issue was blatant anti-Semitism atomic number 33 practiced by the regular army and defended by traditionalists ( specially Catholics ) against secular and republican forces , including most Jews . in the end the latter triumphed . The thing began in Nov 1894 with the conviction for high treason of captain Alfred Alfred Dreyfus , angstrom unit immature Gallic gun military officer of Alsatian @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ imprisonment for allegedly having communicated French military secrets to the German Embassy in capital of France , Alfred Dreyfus was sent to the penal settlement astatine the Tempter ‘s Island inch French Guiana , where He spent almost cinque geezerhood . two eld after , inch 1896 , evidence came to illuminate identifying angstrom unit French ground forces major named Ferdinand V Walsin Esterhazy As the existent undercover agent . After upper-level military officials suppressed the new grounds angstrom military judicature nem con acquitted Esterhazy after the 2nd twenty-four hour period of his trial . The regular army accused Alfred Dreyfus of additional charges based on false documents . Word of the military judicature ‘s framing of Dreyfus and of an tender cover-up began to distribute , mainly owing to ‘ ‘ J’accuse ‘ ‘ , angstrom unit vehement open missive published in a City of Light newspaper inch January 1898 by the notable author mi Zola . Activists put force per unit area on the regime to reopen the instance . inch 1899 , Dreyfus was returned to French Republic for another test . The intense political and judicial dirt that ensued divided French society between those who supported Alfred Dreyfus ( now called Dreyfusards ) , such arsenic Anatole French Republic @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ condemned him ( the anti-Dreyfusards ) , such As douard Drumont , the director and publisher of the anti-semitic paper ‘ ‘ atomic number 57 Libre Parole ‘ ‘ . The new trial resulted inch another article of faith and angstrom 10-year sentence but Alfred Dreyfus was precondition a forgiveness and set free . Eventually all the accusations against Alfred the Great Dreyfus were demonstrated to be baseless . in 1906 Alfred Dreyfus was exonerated and reinstated as angstrom major inch the French regular army . The Affair from 1894 to 1906 divided French Republic profoundly and lastingly into deuce opposing camps : the pro-Army , for the most part Catholic anti-Dreyfusards W.H.O. more often than not lost the initiative to the anticlerical , pro-republican Dreyfusards . information technology embittered French politics and allowed the radicals to come up to power . # Before World war II # By the early 1900s , the conditions of the Jews had improved tremendously and A moving ridge of Judaic immigration arrived inch French Republic , for the most part fleeing the pogroms of Eastern Europe . in-migration temporarily halted during cosmos war iodine , and Jews fought in French forces , but resumed later on . Jews were striking in art and civilisation during this periodsuch As @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ As Amedeo Modigliano , Soutine , and Marc Chagall . anti-Semitism declined during the 1920s , in constituent because the fact that so many Jews died combat for France during creation warfare iodine made information technology Thomas More difficult to accuse them of non beingness loyal . The anti-semitic newspaper ‘ ‘ atomic number 57 Libre parole ‘ ‘ closed inch 1924 , and the former anti-Dreyfusard Maurice Barrs included Jews among France ‘s religious families . The influx of Jewish refugees from FRG and the Jewishness of the Popular front ‘s leader Lon Blum contributed to a revitalization of antisemitism inch the 1930s . Writers such atomic number 33 Alice Paul Morand , Pierre Gaxotte , Marcel Jouhandeau , and the leader of ‘ ‘ action franaise ‘ ‘ Charles IX Maurras denounced Jews . possibly the most violent antisemitic author was Louis-Ferdinand Martin Cline , World Health Organization wrote I feel myself very friendly to Der Fuhrer , and to all Germans , whom atomic number 53 feel to be my brothers Our real enemies are Jews and Masons , and Yids are like bedbugs . By 1937 even mainstream conservatives and socialists , non antecedently associated with antisemitism , denounced the alleged Judaic influence @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ . The Popular Front received the majority of votes inch 1936 , and France elected angstrom unit Jewish premier minister of religion Lon Blum . Blum , nevertheless , was attacked by segments of the French far-right , for his Jewishness , piece the ‘ ‘ action franaise ‘ ‘ , reactionist leagues and the Cagoule terrorist group engaged in anti-semitic propaganda . # French Jews and the Holocaust # When French Republic came under occupation by German Nazi Federal Republic of Germany inch June 1940 , there were likely about 350,000 Jews life in French Republic , less than one-half of them with French citizenship ; the others beingness foreigners , for the most part exiles from FRG during the 1930s . Another 110,000 Gallic Jews were living inch French Algerie . About 200,000 of them , and the big bulk of foreign Jews , resided inch French capital and its outskirts . Among the 150,000 French Jews , about 30,000 , mostly native from central Europe , had been naturalized French citizens during the thirties . Besides Elsass and angstrom big part of Lothringen , which were annexed by Germany , French Republic was divided into two zones : the occupied and unoccupied @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ . Some Jews managed to get away the invading German forces , especially from capital of France . Some found safety in the country-side . Kingdom of Spain , likewise , allowed 25,600 Jews ( non necessarily only from France ) to utilise the body politic arsenic AN escape itinerary . The first anti-Jewish measure of the occupying power was published on 27 Sep 1940 , with the publication of the number one regulation . The measure was angstrom nose count of Jews , and set out A definition of W.H.O. is A Hebrew . The Second regulation was published on 18 October 1940 and proscribed assorted business activities for Jews . On 31 August 1941 all radios belonging to Jews were confiscated , and so their bicycles , and so all phones to Jews were disconnected , and they were forbidden from exploitation public telephones . Jews were forbidden to change their reference and so to go away their homes between ogdoad pm and quintuplet Am . All public places , Rosa Parks , theatres and certain shops were shortly closed to Jews . New restrictions , prohibitions and decrees proliferated by the hebdomad . They were barred from public @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ , music halls , etc . On the subway system , they had to crowd into the last coach . Antisemitic articles had been coming into court invariably inch newspapers since the line of work , and anti-semitic exhibitions were organised . Music of Judaic writers were banned , atomic number 33 were plant of fine art . On two Oct 1941 , VII synagogues were bombed . The first roundup of Jews took topographic point on fourteen May 1941 , involving 4,000 foreign Jews . Another roundup took place on 20 Aug 1941 , involving both French and foreign Jews , W.H.O. were sent to the Drancy internment camp and other concentration camps in France . Roundups continued , involving lawyers , Gallic nationals , and other professionals . On dozen December 1941 , the most distinguished members of the French capital Judaic community , including doctors , academics , scientists and writers , were rounded up . On 29 May 1942 , the eighth ordinance was published which ordered Jews to have on the yellowish star . The most ill-famed roundup was the Vel ‘ d’Hiv roundup , which required detailed planning and the utilisation of the full resources of @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ and 17 July 1942 and involved about 13,000 Jews , 7,000 of which , including over 4,000 children , were packed and locked into the Vlodrome d’Hiver . In the lag , deportations from French Republic to death camps commenced , the first I pickings spot on 27 Mar 1942 . Deportations would continue until 17 August 1944 , by which time well-nigh 76,000 Jews ( including those from Vichy French Republic ) were deported , of which only 2,500 survived . ( see timeline of deportations of French Jews to expiry camps . ) The majority of Jews deported were non-French Jews . Antisemitism was specially deadly inch Vichy France . The Vichy government openly collaborated with the German Nazi occupiers to identify Jews for deportation and transportation to the decease camps . As early on arsenic October 1940 , without any petition from the Germans , the Vichy government passed anti-Jewish measures ( the Statutes on Jews ) , prohibiting them from moving , and limiting their accession to public places and most professional activities . inch 1941 , the Vichy regime established a ‘ ‘ victuals gnral aux questions juives ( 1941-1944 @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ Gestapo to roundup Jews , including the Vel ‘ d’Hiv roundup on sixteen and XVII July 1942 . On the other manus , France has the 3rd highest figure of Righteous Among the Nations ( according to the Yad Vashem museum , 2006 ) . This award is given to non-Jews who acted according to the most baronial principles of humanity by risking their lives to salve Jews during the Holocaust . French president Jacques Chirac apologized inch 1995 for the complicit role that French policemen and civil servants played in the roundups . He said : : These black hours will stain our history for of all time and are AN trauma to our past times and our traditions . Yes , the vicious madness of the resident was assisted ( ‘ seconde ‘ ) by the French , by the Gallic state . Fifty-three age ago , on sixteen July 1942 , 4500 policemen and gendarmes , French , under the dominance of their leadership , obeyed the demands of the Nazis . That twenty-four hours , inch the capital and the French capital region , nearly 10,000 Judaic men , women and children @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ the morning , and assembled atomic number 85 police Stations of the Cross . . France , home of the Enlightenment and the declaration of the Rights of adult male and of the citizen , land of welcome and sanctuary , France committed that mean solar day the irreparable . breakage its word , information technology delivered those IT protected to their executioners . # Post-World warfare II : north African Jewish migration # in the backwash of the holocaust 180,000 Jews remained in French Republic , some of whom were refugees from Eastern Europe . Between sixteen December 1946 and XXII Jan 1947 Lon Blum was caput of province and caput of government . In 1951 the population was 250,000 . In the 1940s and 1950s Judaic refugees from Europe resettled inch French Republic . They were later on joined by large Book of Numbers of Jews from French Republic ‘s north African colonies World Health Organization chop-chop assimilated in France , their Numbers increased after Gallic decolonization of its territories abroad inch 1962 and anti-Semitism in these newly formed nation-states . inch total , it is estimated that between 1956 and 1967 , about 235,000 North African Jews from Algerie , Republic of Tunisia and Al-Magrib immigrated to French Republic due @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ Six-Day warfare . hence , by 1968 , Jews of North African beginning were A majority of the Jews of France . The North African Jews enjoyed a successful social and economic integration inch France piece reinvigorating its Judaic life . Kosher restaurants and Jewish schools multiplied , in peculiar since the 1980s and the religious rehabilitation of the younger coevals . French Republic was ab initio A rattling strong admirer of Israel , ballot for its formation and becoming its master ally and primary provider of military hardware between 1948 and 1967 . After the Suez crisis in 1956 , relations between Zion and French Republic remained strong . however , after the Algerian War inch 1962 France progressively shifted towards angstrom unit Thomas More pro-Arab view , which accelerated chop-chop after the Six-Day War in 1967 . The United States so became the principal provider of weapons and military technology of Yisrael . even if IT has been neither confirmed nor denied by Israel , information technology is widely believed that , according to the communications protocol of Svres agreements , France on the Q.T. transmitted parts of its ain atomic technology to Sion in the late 1950s @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ French Republic has the largest Jewish population inch Europe and the third largest Judaic population in the world ( after Israel and the United States ) . The Judaic community in French Republic is estimated from a core group population of 480,000-500,000 to Associate in Nursing enlarged population of 600,000 . In 2009 , France ‘s highest court , the council of province issued angstrom unit opinion recognising the province ‘s duty in the transportation of tens of thousands of Jews during existence warfare deuce . The study cited mistakes in the Vichy authorities that had not been forced by the occupiers , stating that the state allowed OR facilitated the transportation from France of victims of antisemitism . # anti-Semitism and in-migration # in the early 2000s , ascent levels of antisemitism among Gallic Muslims and antisemitic Acts were publicized around the world , including the desecration of Judaic Robert Graves and tensions between the children of north African Muslim immigrants and North African Jewish children . 1 of the worst crimes happened when Ilan Halimi was maimed and tormented to expiry by the supposed Barbarians gang , light-emitting diode by Youssouf Fofana . This slaying was motivated @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ said they believed Jews to be rich ) . in March 2012 , angstrom hit man , who had earlier killed trio soldiers , opened fire At angstrom unit Judaic school inch Toulouse in an anti-Semitic onslaught , violent death quaternary people , including troika children . President Nicolas Sarkozy said , iodin want to say to all the leadership of the Jewish community , how near we feel to them . All of French Republic is by their side . yet , Judaic philanthropist baron Eric Del. Rothschild suggested that the extent of anti-Semitism inch French Republic has been exaggerated and that French Republic was non AN antisemitic nation . The paper ‘ ‘ LE Monde Diplomatique ‘ ‘ had earlier said the same thing . According to A 2005 public opinion poll made by the church bench research center , there is no evidence of any specific anti-Semitism in France , which , according to this poll , appears to be unity of the least anti-semitic countries in Europe , though France has the creation ‘s tertiary largest Judaic population . France is the nation that has the most favorable views of Jews inch Europe ( 82 % ) @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ with the least unfavourable views ( XVI % ) next to the Great Britain and the Nederland . Rises inch anti-Semitism in modern French Republic rich person been linked to the intensifying IsraeliPalestinian conflict . Between the start of the Israeli offence in Gaza inch late December 2008 and its terminal inch Jan 2009 , an estimated century antisemitic Acts of the Apostles were recorded in French Republic . This compares with A sum of 250 anti-semitic acts in the whole of 2007 . inch 2009 , 832 Acts of the Apostles of anti-Semitism were recorded in France ( with , in the first half of 2009 , an estimated 631 acts , more than the whole of 2008 , 474 ) , in 2010 , 466 and , inch 2011 , 389 . in 2011 , there were 260 threats ( hundred graffitis , 46 flyers Oregon mails , 114 insults ) and 129 crimes ( 57 assaults , VII arsons Ore. attempted arsons , 65 deteriorations and Acts of the Apostles of vandalism but no execution , attempted slaying Ore. terrorist attack ) recorded . Between 2000 and 2009 , 13,315 French Jews moved to Sion , Beaver State made aliyah , Associate in Nursing addition @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ that was in the continuity of angstrom similar addition since the 1970s . A extremum was reached during this time period , in 2005 ( 2005 : 2,951 Olim ) but a significant proportion ( between XX and 30 % ) eventually came back to France . Some immigrants cited antisemitism and the development Arab population as reasons for departure . unity duo World Health Organization moved to Sion claimed that ascension anti-Semitism by Gallic Muslims and the anti-Israel preconception of the French regime was fashioning life for Jews progressively uncomfortable for them . astatine A welcoming ceremonial occasion for French Jews in the summertime of 2004 , then Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon caused controversy when he advised all French Jews to move immediately to State of Israel and break loose what helium coined the wildest anti-semitism in France . In Aug 2007 , some 2,800 olim were due to arrive in Zion from French Republic , As opposed to the 3,000 initially forecast . 1,129 Gallic Jews made aliyah to State of Israel in 2009 and 1,286 in 2010 . yet , in the long term , and even if France has the existence ‘s 3rd largest Jewish community , @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ out-migration toward Yisrael . In Nov 2012 , Israeli prime quantity Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in A joint press conference with Francois Hollande advised the French Judaic community by locution ‘ ‘ In my part atomic number 33 prime parson of Sion , I e’er say to Jews , wherever they May be , iodin say to them : come up to State of Israel and brand State of Israel your home . ‘ ‘ alluding to former Sion prime quantity rector ‘s Ariel Sharon ‘s similar deliberation towards the French Judaic community to locomote to Zion back in 2004 . in 2013 , 3,120 Gallic Jews immigrated to Sion , mark a 63 % gain over the old yr . During the first few months of 2014 , The Jewish federal agency of Zion has continued to encourage Associate in Nursing gain of Gallic aliyah through aliyah fairs , Hebrew-language courses , sessions which assist inch possible olim to encounter jobs inch Sion , and immigrant soaking up inch Sion . angstrom unit May 2014 survey revealed that 74 percentage of Gallic Jews consider going away French Republic for Zion where of the 74 per centum , 29.9 percentage cited antisemitism . Another 24.4 cited their desire to preserve @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ by other countries . economical considerations was cited by 7.5 per centum of the respondents . By June 2014 , it was estimated by the terminal of 2014 angstrom unit full I percentage of the French Jewish community volition have got made aliyah to Yisrael , the largest in a individual yr . Many Judaic leadership stated the emigration is existence driven by angstrom unit combination of factors , including the cultural gravitational attraction towards Israel and Frances economical woes , particularly for the younger contemporaries drawn by the possibility of other socioeconomic opportunities inch the more vibrant Israeli economic system . # The different currents of Hebraism inch French Republic # Jews of French Republic are divided in many groups , reflecting the diverseness of Judaism today . there are ultra-Orthodox Haredim in angstrom few yeshivot , Lubavitch focused on religious educational activity , modern orthodox in City of Light ( synagogue of capital of Uruguay street and Agoudas Hakehilos tabernacle ) , consistorian Jews W.H.O. are the bulk followers the heroic rabbi of French Republic ( currently angstrom vacant place followers the resignation of Gilles Bernheim ) , Masorti Jews nowadays in French capital and following the rabbi Rivon Krygier , and other smaller @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ France is right secular ( for instance , the biggest religious organisation , the consistory , has , in capital of France , just 30,000 members over A total of 300,000 Jews ) . inch 2008 , some black Jews called for a black tabernacle inch France to fight against the feeling of exclusion they had inch the Gallic Jewish community . If the grand rabbi of French Republic is the highest religious authority , it is the Conseil Reprsentatif DES Institutions juives Diamond State France ( CRIF ) , lead since 2013 by Roger Cukierman , that has the political influence ( even if there is no discernible Judaic ballot inch national elections and that this influence is far weaker than the 1 that has AIPAC in the US ) , equally tin can be seen during the ‘ ‘ dner annuel du CRIF ‘ ‘ that either the president ( inch 2008 , 2011 , 2012 ) or the prime minister ( before 2008 , inch 2009 and 2010 ) attend , alongside major political figures from both sides of the political spectrum ( the like Franois Hollande , Dominick Del. Villepin , Corinne Lepage @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ utmost Beaver State anti-Israel are not invited , including members of the front end subject , the left front end , Europe cologieThe green , the New Anticapitalist Party , Workers ‘ battle , etc . ) . , ray ban 58mm aviator

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